Tag Archives for " non-toxic cleaners "

“Sleeper” bacteria spores are like mold spores

“Sleeper” bacteria spores are like mold spores

One of the unsavory facts about mold is its ability to lie dormant when food and moisture sources dry up, until conditions allow it to “bloom” again.  Scientists are finding out that there are other microbes that exhibit this same behavior, necessitating finding new ways to detect their presence.  

One of these is Acinetobacter Baumannii.  This superbug is usually present in wet environments, such as soil and mud, ponds, wetlands, wastewater, fish farms and seawater.  Healthy people can also carry the Acinetobacter bacteria on their skin, particularly if they work in a healthcare setting. It can survive for a long time on dry surfaces, making it difficult to eliminate. (Acinetobacter: What to know)  

Scientists have recently discovered a new state of “life” of this bacteria.  When living conditions become too stressful, many bacteria enter a dormant state that is almost death-like, showing no metabolic activity. These are known as spores. 

Acinetobacter baumannii can alternatively form special cells which are in a kind of deep sleep. Although these cells still show signs of life and breathe, it is no longer possible to cultivate them on culture media in Petri dishes. "We know this state from cholera bacteria, for example; it is referred to as the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state," explains Professor Volker Müller of Goethe University Frankfurt.  (The deep slumber of a hospital pathogen: Why infections with Acinetobacter baumannii can flare up again and again)

As of the study date (September 2023), scientists have kept the acinetobacter in VBNC state for 11 months, and are still able to “wake them up” after 2 days of “rehab” with special nutrients and oxygen.  No end is in sight for the length of time these bacteria can hibernate.  

The danger is that courses of normal antibiotics and culture procedures (on a plate) can yield negative culture results, which would indicate that a patient is clear of such dangerous microbes.  However, VBNC cells can be hiding in nooks and crannies of the body, waiting to resurge when stress or antibiotics are removed  Tests like PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) can be used to detect VBNC cells because they identify specific genes that cause virulence and predict antibiotic resistance, but it’s probable that these are not used in smaller hospitals currently.

Acinetobacter Baumannii is not the only bacteria with “sleeper” capabilities; dormancy or persistence is just a “state” that many bacteria can occupy.  Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is related to the bacteria that causes pneumonia, was studied in 2013 and discovered that “persister” bacteria continued to divide and die even during antibiotic treatment so that the total number of bacteria stayed approximately the same.  The fact that the cells weren’t classically “dormant” but still continued to divide, makes them technically “dynamically resistant” to antibiotics, while other microbes use other techniques to evade death and can be labeled “tolerant, latent, indifferent, dormant and non-multiplying”.  (Sleeper cells – the secret lives of invincible bacteria) However, it all comes back to their ability to survive antibiotics, which is dangerous for us!

Here is some recent literature on other “sleeper cells”

Since persistent bacteria are difficult to kill with traditional antibiotics, scientists are pursuing several strategies to take them out.  One is to find ways to wake all of them up, so that they are easy to kill with accessible drugs.  The second is to discover what genes or proteins allow them to stay alive in sleep mode.  Some of these “upregulate” cell functions (like scavenging for iron), and some of them downregulate cell functions (like digestive functions).  A third tactic would be to look for drugs that kill the sleeper cells, not just active ones.  

To the layman, all this sounds like poking into a hibernating bear’s den with different sticks until you find one of the right length poking in the right place, and having the best gun or trap ready for when he wakes up!  The sad fact is that people regularly suffer from hosting these persistent bacteria in their bodies and we sincerely hope that scientists can find the right triggers in labs to find the combination of methods to help patients who need it.

Bacteria, mold and other microbes also populate our homes in the form of spores, persisting for years until the right moisture AND nutrients come along.  Although there is no “silver bullet” like an antibiotic to remove them completely, we can use the same principles to keep the population under control so that our bodies don’t suffer!

  • Clean regularly with non-toxic ingredients.  The less dust and dirt we allow to accumulate in our homes, the less microbe spores are lying around.  Check out our article on Tackling Dust in Your Home.

  • The FDA states that over-the-counter antibacterial hand soaps don’t protect us from disease any better than regular soap and water.  The cleansing action happens in the thorough agitation of soap and water over hands, and a good rinse with water.  Many “antibacterial” soaps also contain ingredients, like triclosan, which can be harmful to us over time.  

  • Since you can’t easily scrub and rinse items like your countertop or toilet seat with soap and water, however, different solutions need to be employed there.  Sure, you can get antibacterial cleaning sprays, but the same concerns apply: are they safe long-term?  Instead, opt for cleaners that are non-toxic and are less likely to create antibiotic resistance.  We’ve recommended the following cleaners for these reasons:

    • Our all-purpose, non-toxic cleaner TotalClean combines both copper and iodine, and when they are combined, they produce peroxide!  In simple terms, the peroxide acts as an “oxidizing agent”, destroying the means for bacteria to take in oxygen and suffocating them.  

    • The Honest Company Disinfecting Spray also uses hydrogen peroxide to clean, disinfect, and deodorize while meeting EPA’s criteria for products effective against SARS-CoV-2 and a laundry list of other germs.

    • Because hypochlorous acid is an oxidant, it leaves nothing behind for bacteria and viruses to create resistance to and therefore does not contribute to the superbug (multidrug-resistant organisms) dilemma.(The Role of Hypochlorous Acid in Managing Wounds: Reduction in Antibiotic Usage)   Hypochlorous is not bleach; in fact, it’s superior to bleach.  Some hypochlorous cleaners include Force of Nature and Clean Republic’s All Purpose Cleaner.

  • Of course, change your HVAC filter regularly so that spores do not find their way to your air handler’s evaporator coil, where moisture can allow them to reactivate.  We’ve got some great filters with activated carbon and MERV 10-14 ratings (for more on MERV, check out our article HVAC filter changes are vital to your indoor air quality

  • The technology in our bipolar ionizers like our Germ Defender, Upgraded Air Angel Mobile and Whole Home Polar Ionizer has been tested against bacteria such as E. coli, MRSA and C. diff (see test results here), so why not add them to your non-toxic cleaning arsenal as a passive way to keep the spores under control? 

There’s a lot about the microscopic world of bacteria and mold that we don’t know, and obsessing over it doesn’t help much!  Thankfully, there are quite a few ways to keep safe using non-toxic products and methods that are tried and true. 

Photo by CDC on Unsplash

Mold in the Toilet

Mold in the Toilet

The bathroom is a room that’s very susceptible to mold growth, and once you understand what mold needs to grow, it’s easy to understand why. Basically, it just needs moisture (shower=check, sink=check, toilet=check), and food (dust=check, organic matter=check), so the bathroom sometimes becomes a petri dish that’s hard to keep up with.  Fortunately for you, we’re tackling this problem by appliance, so check out our other articles here:

Now, back to mold in the toilet.  Mold can be mistaken for those stubborn mineral toilet rings, until it starts to turn weird colors, like black, brown or pink. 

What type of mold is the black mold in the toilet?

Although you may know that Stachybotrys chartarum is the most commonly termed “black” mold, another mold that appears black is Aspergillus Niger, as shown in Figure 2 of this 2017 study from India.  Aspergillus Niger can be a cause of some forms of pneumonia, so it’s definitely not something you want in your bathroom!  The study identified five types of mold in public toilets, resulting from airborne spread of spores and improper or infrequent cleaning procedures.

Alternaria and Cladosporium are two other types of mold that can produce black growths. (10 Types of Mold Colors Commonly Found in the House)  The most important thing to know is that these molds can produce mycotoxins and mVOCs every time they are disturbed!  Stachybotrys has been demonstrated to produce a number of Macrocyclic Trichothecene mycotoxins.  (Black Mold and Stachybotrys Exposure Guide)  Aspergillus niger can produce Ochratoxin A, Cladosporium produces mVOCs which can be irritating, and Alternaria species produce more than 70 mycotoxins! (Alternaria host-specific (HSTs) toxins: An overview of chemical characterization, target sites, regulation and their toxic effects)

Brown stains in the toilet are another problem–they could be caused by a number of molds, such as Pithomyces chartarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Stemonitis, Taeoniella, Cladosporium or Mucor.  Arguably the most harmful mold of these is Mucor, which can cause a life-threatening blood infection called mucormycosis. However, it’s not always brownt any point during its life cycle it can be brown, yellow, black, white, or gray.  (10 Types of Mold Colors Commonly Found in the House)

Pink slime in the toilet is actually not mold.  As we mentioned in our article about the shower, that pink slime that can also form around drains and at the bottom of the shower curtain is caused by the bacteria Serratia marcescens, and can cause urinary and respiratory tract infections, which are especially problematic for people with immune problems. 

If you decide to try to find out what type of mold is growing, you can test it with a lab, but in any case it’s wise to treat it as a dangerous air pollutant.  Don’t disturb it unless you spray a cleaner on it first (to immobilize the spores), or are using a mask!

What is the cause of mold in the toilet bowl?

There are several possible causes for mold in the toilet bowl, some of which can be easily resolved and some need more effort!  

  • One of the easiest methods is just flushing the toilet more often. Toilets that are not used every day can allow mold and bacteria to attach to the bowl.  After cleaning the toilet, try to remind yourself to swing by and flush the toilet at least every other day so that these microbes don’t have a chance to proliferate.
  • Next, if the toilet does get used or flushed often, more frequent cleaning is often needed.  However, you need to skip traditional bleach based toilet cleaners, as they are toxic for you!  The following are some non-toxic cleaners that are very effective for bacteria and germs, however note that citric acid is not always effective on mold (read below on citric acid** and get a few more recommendations from Zero-Waste Memoirs):
    • Force of Nature is hypochlorous acid, a safe alternative to bleach that is a hospital-grade, EPA-registered disinfectant that kills 99.9% of germs including Staph, MRSA, Norovirus, Influenza A, Salmonella, and Listeria when used as directed.  You can spray Force of Nature in the toilet as a final disinfectant, but it should not be mixed with essential oils or cleaners that contain essential oils, as this can reduce its disinfecting power. 
    • Fragrance-free powder: Seventh Generation Zero Plastic Toilet Bowl Cleaner ($22) has citric acid as its main cleaning agent.  This non-toxic ingredient is registered with the FDA in products certified to kill feline calicivirus (a testing substitute for norovirus), so we know that it works.  If you or anyone in your household is exhibiting symptoms of this illness or a similar one, we would suggest cleaning toilets full-strength and often with a product like this!   If you like a little lemony fragrance, try the Probiotic Toilet Bowl Cleaner by Etee ($45), which also uses citric acid.  It may seem expensive, but it’s not bad on a per-use basis ($1.50), and some customers find that using less than the prescribed amount (1 TBSP) works just fine.  Added probiotics help to keep your septic system functioning optimally.
    • Dissolving strips:  Nature Clean Natural Toilet Bowl Cleaners Strips ($17) are highly rated too.  They use sodium coco sulfate as the main ingredient, which is a blend of the fatty acids in coconut oil. (Sodium Coco Sulfate: Is It Natural?)  It is a synthetic detergent with one of its ingredients being sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), however it is less irritating should you immerse your skin in the soapy water (highly unlikely for a toilet bowl cleaner!) Lastly, the essential oils including Australian tea tree oil, provide a pleasant scent and antiseptic properties.
    • Liquid: Mrs. Meyer’s Liquid Toilet Bowl Cleaner, $6, uses citric acid and essential oils like lemon verbena to get a fresh-smelling clean, all in a bottle made from at least 30% post-consumer plastic (recycled).  

Safe descaling of your toilet bowl:  mineral stains and some molds may be removed by simply using the concentrated citric acid** (as you’ve read, a non-toxic ingredient in many toilet bowl cleaners), which comes in a granule or powder form.  Granules are safer to use because they are mostly dust-free (they’ve been formed into little clumps that don’t kick up dust when you handle them).  

The following is adapted from a post on Moral Fibres.  Their method did not work without scrubbing but I learned a few things working on my own toilets:

  • Gather your supplies: a large pitcher for clean water, ½ cup of citric acid powder or granules, latex or plastic gloves, an abrasive scrub sponge that’s safe for porcelain, Bar-Keeper’s Friend Cleanser (optional), several paper towels, small disposable cup, tape for closing the lid (optional), about ¼ cup baking soda. 

  • Turn off/close the water valve on the wall completely.

  • Flush the toilet.  The tank and the bowl won’t refill this time. 

  • Fill a large pitcher full of hot water from your sink and pour it into the toilet bowl. The water should not be boiling hot as it could crack your toilet.  Also, make sure to add it slowly so that the water doesn’t drain completely from the bowl; you’ll want the water at or above the water ring stain.

  • Put on gloves and add about ½ cup of citric acid powder or granules to your toilet bowl. (use a mask if your citric acid comes in powder form)

  • Swish the water in the bowl gently with your toilet brush to dissolve it, but don’t swirl too vigorously because it will cause water to drain from the bowl.  After you add the citric acid to the bowl, don’t add more water, because this will dilute the acid. Add paper towels around the bowl to cover all the stained porcelain, and use the disposable cup to wet them with liquid from the bowl.  The bowl should be lined with paper towels stuck to the inside wherever there are stains.

  • Close the lid and put tape and a sign to prevent people from using it! 

  • Leave the citric acid in the toilet bowl, without flushing, for at least one hour, or preferably before going to bed, so it can soak the scale overnight.

  • After leaving the solution to soak, use the bowl brush or gloved hands to remove the paper towels, and try using your toilet brush to remove scale deposits. If it doesn’t move, use gloved hands, the scrub sponge, and Bar-Keeper’s Friend or another agent safe for porcelain.  Scrub away!

  • Finish by adding the baking soda to neutralize the acid, swish with the bowl brush, open the water valve, wait for the tank to fill, and flush!

  • If your toilet is particularly stained, then it may need a second application to remove stubborn deposits.

Citric acid**: The interesting thing about this chemical is that it is commercially produced by the mold Aspergillus Niger, which may be the same type of mold you’re trying to eliminate.  Manufactured Citric Acid (MCA) is one of the most common food additives in the world, and has received the status of “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) with the FDA.  However, there have been isolated cases of inflammation due to ingestion of foods with MCA, due to its great tolerance to heat and large potential that byproducts of A. niger remain in the final MCA product. (Potential role of the common food additive manufactured citric acid in eliciting significant inflammatory reactions contributing to serious disease states: A series of four case reports)  Unfortunately, we weren’t able to determine whether MCA actually kills Aspergillus Niger growing in your toilet, but it does a great job with all the other molds 

The atmosphere of the bathroom is also very important in preventing mold.  Here are two ways to keep the air in the bathroom less hospitable to mold: 

  • Bathroom exhaust fans are a must for any bathroom with an actual shower or bath.  If you have a fan but not sure if it’s large enough, check the cubic feet of air per minute rating (cfm) on the fan (you may have to remove the cover) and this article to see if it’s large enough for your bathroom.  In addition, go outside and see if you can see the little flapper lifting to show that air is indeed being exhausted.  If you can't find the exhaust of this fan, it's possible that the moisture is being exhausted in the attic, which needs to be fixed.  If your kids or guests are not switching on the exhaust fan during their showers, get an electrician to tie the fan and light switch together so that the fan MUST come on when the light is on.  Finally, if you don't have an exhaust fan, get a window fan like this one and make sure the kids use it!
  • Bipolar ionization units like our Germ Defenders, Mobile Air Angels and Whole Home Ionizers are a great way to keep mold away too.  At the very least, plugging a Germ Defender into the bathroom will send out ions to kill mold spores in this small space where air circulation can be a challenge.

If the mold keeps coming back despite flushing and cleaning, then there are several possible causes for this:

  • Older toilets commonly have pitting in the ceramic which can harbor mold. This video shows that no matter how hard a toilet is scrubbed with different products, pits in the ceramic are microscopic reservoirs that shelter bits of the mold, allowing it to come back again.  The safest solution in this case is to replace the old toilet with a new one.  The radical (but toxic) solution to keep your old toilet but lose the mold is to use diluted muriatic acid (also known as hydrochloric acid) to clean the pits.  However, the mold will eventually come back and inhabit those pits again unless you take another step to renew the enamel on your toilet bowl (a bit extreme to save an old toilet). 
  • Improper venting.  You may not know it, but all drains in your home require a vent to work properly.  We’re not talking about the air vents in ceilings and walls, but a gas vent for the drain line.  These are hidden in your walls.  According to the uniform plumbing code, vents must be located within six feet of the P-trap (that snake-like part under the sink and the S-curve under the back of the toilet); otherwise, the drain may not work properly and gasses can build up, supporting mold and microbe growth.  If this seems to be the case, it’s best to have a good plumber check out the location and condition of the toilet and sink vents and see if there are other drain problems.   
  • This next one is a difficult truth: there may be a cache of mold hidden in your home that is “seeding” spores into your air, causing mold to grow wherever there’s a water source (sinks, showers, and of course your toilet).  According to a respected mold inspection and remediation company, Mold hotspots include the basement, attic, windowsills and door frames, crawlspaces, appliances, and underneath the sinks. Do you feel worse in some rooms of your home and better after leaving them?  This gives a clue to where the mold contamination may be originating.  If you don’t see anything obvious, you could have a hidden leak somewhere, like in the walls or flooring, that’s allowing mold to grow. There are two things you can do in this case: 
    • Order some spore traps from GotMold or even just a set of EC3 test plates ($36 for 6-pack) by MicroBalance Health Products to check the relative mold level in rooms to narrow it down!
    • If you suspect a problem or are having chronic symptoms, it’s best to hire a qualified mold inspector.

There are many non-toxic ways to clean and keep clean nowadays, and with a little research and effort the toilet can be as clean and healthy as the rest of your bathroom and home!

Photo by Jas Min on Unsplash

Cleaning vs. Sanitizing vs. Disinfecting: There is a Difference

Cleaning vs. Sanitizing vs. Disinfecting: There is a Difference

Hold on, we’re going to break some common misconceptions in this post!

Misconception #1: What room do you think is the dirtiest (germiest) part of your house?  

Most people said that it is the bathroom (in a study of 22 families), but in reality, it is THE KITCHEN.  Coliform bacteria –indicating possible fecal contamination—was found on: (from the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers)

More than 75% of dish sponges and rags

45% of kitchen sinks

32% of countertops

18% of cutting boards

Overall, the 10 germiest items in the household, listed in order, are:

  • Dish sponges/rags

  • Kitchen sink

  • Toothbrush holders

  • Pet bowls

  • Coffee reservoir:  (NSF’s 2011 International Household Germ Study found yeast and mold present in 31% of households studied. In half of those, it was found in the coffee reservoir of the coffeemaker.)

  • Bathroom faucet handle

  • Pet toys

  • Countertops

  • Stove knobs: Staphyloccus aureus (staph), a common and potentially harmful type of bacteria,was found on stove knobs in 5% of the homes where the bacteria was discovered.

  • Cutting boards

Misconception #2: In the US, we tend to use the words cleaning, sanitizing and disinfecting interchangeably, but they really are not the same!  

Many people use vinegar to clean because it is a “natural” non-toxic product, but it does not sanitize.  “It’s a misconception that if you’re using vinegar to clean, you’re sanitizing,” says Mindy Costello, a registered environmental health sanitarian and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) consumer product certification specialist. “Cleaning is just removing the soil. In sanitizing, you’re killing the microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi).” If you want to reduce your risk of getting sick, sanitizing is the way to go. (Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers)  Sanitization reduces contamination or bacteria to a safe level.

Now, if you really want to go all-out, disinfection kills everything on a particular surface, according to Travers Anderson, R&D Group Manager at Clorox.  

Now that you know what cleaning, sanitizing and disinfecting are, where and when should they be used?

According to Mr. Anderson at Clorox, sanitizing is best for surfaces that don't typically come into contact with hazardous bacteria, or those that shouldn't come into contact with powerful chemicals: Think cooking tools and food prep surfaces or toys that children come into close contact with (or put into their mouths). Disinfecting is for the big messes, particularly those involving bodily fluids, blood, and the like. In household settings, you'd disinfect a toilet or sinks. (realsimple.com)  

Sanitizing can be done with a cleaning product, or with appliances that have this built-in feature, like a dishwasher or washing machine.  These appliances do so with high heat during the cycle.  It’s important to use these cycles to sanitize your laundry and dishes regularly, especially clothes and dishes worn and used by people who are ill. Sanitize high-contact surfaces regularly, and do dishes as soon as possible, as bacteria begins to grow after about two hours on soiled dishes left at room temperature according to Ms. Costello of the NSF.

Dishwashers and washing machines are tested by the NSF to ensure their sanitizing cycles are faultless.  Clothes washers must show that the sanitizing cycle removes 99.9% of microorganisms from laundry and dishwashers must show a reduction of 99.999%. During testing, three common organisms – staphyloccus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa – are added to the loads of dishes or laundry. The level of bacteria is tested afterward. The water in dishwashers that earn the NSF mark for sanitization must reach 150 degrees Fahrenheit during the final rinse and stay at or above that temperature long enough to achieve the 99.999 % reduction.

The sanitizing cycle doesn’t need to be used on every load of clothing, however, because the high heat can cause colors to fade and fibers to wear over time.  It’s a good idea to use it when laundering clothing or bedding from someone who’s sick, or when washing sweaty clothing, or when towels or clothing smell musty–indicating mold growth.  (realsimple.com)

To sanitize sponges and dishrags, heat them in the microwave for two minutes while they’re wet.  

As for cleaning products, we are all for non-toxic ones.  TotalClean is an all-purpose cleaner and deodorizer that is safe to use in all areas of the home, from the kitchen to the bathroom to your childrens’ toys.  It hasn’t been tested according to the EPA’s requirements for sanitizing and disinfection yet, so we recommend it for cleaning purposes and will advise when these tests are completed!  

Bleach is a sanitizer at low concentrations and a disinfectant at higher concentrations.  However, bleach has toxic VOCs and we don’t recommend it.  Instead, try hypochlorous acid.  Even though it sounds toxic and it’s related to bleach (hypochlorite), hypochlorous is much safer as well as being a far superior disinfectant to bleach.  One of the most fundamental reasons for this is its pH. Hypochlorous acid exists at a near-neutral pH (5-7). Bleach resides at a highly-alkaline pH (8-13). The germ-killing properties of bleach are derived from the presence of hypochlorous acid. However, because of its high pH, the majority of the hypochlorous acid present in bleach ends up getting converted to hypochlorite, which is a less effective disinfectant.  (hypsosource.com)

Here’s something else you may not know: the dirtier the surface is, the less effective the disinfectant is. (sfgate.com)  Switching from using bleach to hypochlorous as a sanitizer is not complicated at all, but it may mean you need to adjust some of your cleaning protocols. For example, cleaning the area with regular soap and water first to remove the bulk of organic material present allows your sanitizer (hypochlorous acid) to disinfect much more effectively. Otherwise, the chlorine in the hypochlorous gets used up trying to break down the organic matter, instead of focusing on killing the more resilient pathogens. (hypsosource.com)  

If you aren’t convinced, check out the following table.   It shows that hypochlorous needs less concentration (parts per million or ppm) and less contact time than bleach to do the same or better job at disinfection!

Source: hypsosource.com

Now that you know about hypochlorous acid, check out the following disinfectants::

  • Force of Nature is a multi-purpose cleaner & EPA registered disinfectant that kills 99.9% of germs. It’s even EPA approved for use against Covid-19.  Best of all, you can easily make more cleaner at home with their small countertop appliance plus a capsule of salt, water & vinegar.  No bulky plastic bottles to tote home or try to recycle!  Force of Nature is hypochlorous acid, a powerful disinfectant.

  • Clean Republic’s All Purpose Cleaner is also hypochlorous acid, and it comes pre-mixed in 3 small spray bottles for $15.  The size of the bottles mean that you can carry them in your car or stash them in small spaces to use whenever and wherever you need to!  

  • Cleanwell Botanical Disinfectant Cleaning Wipes are also a great on-the-go disinfector.  They use Thymol, which is a component of botanical thyme oil that was approved in 2020 by the EPA as an effective disinfectant against SARS-CoV2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It also disinfects bacteria and viruses including MRSA, Salmonella, H1N1, Influenza A, Staph, E-Coli, Norovirus, Rhinovirus, and more. The thyme scent is very pleasant.

  • The Honest Company Disinfecting Spray uses hydrogen peroxide to clean, disinfect, and deodorize while meeting EPA’s criteria for products effective against SARS-CoV-2 and a laundry list of other germs. If you’re familiar with hydrogen peroxide, it’s one of our favorite non-toxic cleaners that you can safely use on food surfaces and children’s items.  However, it can be a bit harsh, etching marble and granite, it shouldn’t be mixed with vinegar, and can discolor fabrics.

Disinfecting shouldn’t require heavy gloves, eye protection and a respirator! Knowledge is power, and you CAN disinfect without smelly, toxic chemicals.  It’s just a matter of changing your mindset and your tools (cleaning products), so that it’s easy to do.  Breathe easier knowing that your home is clean AND disinfected, the non-toxic way! 

Photo by Kelly Sikkema on Unsplash